Vembanad Lake - 5 Things to Know Before Visiting

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Vembanad Lake (also known as Vembanad Kayal) is the largest lake in Kerala State and longest in India. The wetland system created by the lake covers an area of over 2,000 square kilometers making it the largest wetland system in India. The lake lies adjacent to the Arabian Sea, separated by narrow lands in its length. It is the most popular backwater stretch in Kerala.

The lake spans through three districts of Kerala - Ernakulam, Alapuzha, and Kottayam, and it is known by different names in each districts. It is known as Punnamada Lake (Punnamada Kayal) in Alapuzha and Kottayam, Cochin Lake (Cochin Kayal) in Ernakulam. The lake surrounds many islands such as Pathiramanal, Perumbalam, Pallippuram in Alapuzha area and several groups of islands in Ernakulam- Vypin, Mulavukad, Vallarpadam, Willingdon etc. The Port of Cochin is built around Willingdon and Vallarpadam islands.

Vembanad Lake is approximately 14 kilometres in width in its widest point and it is fed by several rivers including water from six major rivers of central Kerala- Achankovil, Manimala, Meenachil, Muvattupuzha, Pamba and Periyar rivers. The lake drains an area of 15,700 square kilometres that accounts for 40 percent of the area of Kerala.  

Kumarakom - the home of Kettuvallams in Vembanad Lake

The most popular tourist place on Vembanad Lake's shores is the Kumarakom Tourist Village in the East Coast of the lake. It is the heart of Kerala's Backwater Tourism with hundred of Kettuvallams plying through it daily. People from all over the world come here for house boat rides through the scenic beauty of the lake and to explore the surrounding small towns and villages.

Kettuvallams are house boats with a thatched roof on wooden hull. They are about 30 meters in length and 4 meters in width. The materials that go into the making of the boats are mostly local and eco-friendly: bamboo shafts, coconut fibre ropes, bamboo mats etc. The main wood used for the boat construction is  from a tree called Anjili (Artocarpus hirsutus). Kettuvallams in the olden days were used to transfer men and materials. These days they are transitioned into luxury houseboats with fully furnished single, double, and triple rooms for visitors to stay and ride across the lake enjoying its beauty.

Exploring Vembanad Lake and Kumarakom in houseboats

The houseboat journey through the lake starts from Kumarakom, a small village consisting of clusters of islands huddled together on the banks of Vembanad Lake. The houseboats has multiple bedrooms, living rooms and kitchens, in short it is a moving luxury house.

The houseboat will take visitors through parts of the lake that lays in its endless expanse of blue, with tinge of green and browns. Water lilies and hyacinths float aimlessly and paddy fields on its banks cover vast expanse of land in green fabric fringed with coconut and banana plantations. The houses in the area are mostly facing the lake or connected to water channels with each having small landing spots for boats. The most common mode of local transportation here is using small boats. The houseboat ride is also a means to see the local life - kids going to school, vendors selling their vegetables on boats, fisherman with their nets etc.

The journey through the lake crosses several clusters of islands and farms separated by streams, lagoons, and lush greenery. The houseboat will stop in some of the islands and you will also be able to see the Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary which is home to several migratory birds such as Siberian cranes, teal, egrets, herons etc. The people managing the houseboats will also help to organise and view traditional Kerala art form Kathakali. Vembanad Lake yearly hosts the popular snake boat race which the visitors will be able to see if they are in town during the right time.

Nehru Trophy Boat Race at Vembanad Lake

Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular event in Kerala held annually in the second Saturday of August at Vembanad Lake. Locally known as ‘Vallam Kali’ or boat play, it involves snake boats (known as Chundan Vallam) racing with each other to the finishing point. Every year, thousands of people including foreigners and locals attend the race.

Thanneermukkom Bund separating fresh and saline water

A unique characteristic of the lake is the 1.2 km long Thanneermukkom salt water barrier constructed as a part of the Kuttanad Development Scheme to prevent tidal action and entry of salt water into the paddy fields of Kuttanad low- lands. Even though it is constructed at the narrower part of the lake, it is still the largest mud regulator in India. The barrier divides the lake into two parts - one with fresh water draining into the lake by rivers, and another one with salt water coming from the Arabian Sea.

The salt barrier has helped farmers in Kuttanad in keeping the saline water from entering in the fields and damaging the crops, and it allows them to grow an additional crop in the dry season.

Nature and eco-system damages in the lake area

Vembanad lake has been heavily reclaimed over the course of past century with the water spread area reduced to 37 percent of its original size at present. The port of Cochin is built on parts of the largest stretch of reclaimed land and contributes to the decades long polluting activities.

Although construction of Thanneermukkom Bund has helped the inhabitants of the area in many ways, it has caused great damages to the eco-system as well. The gates of Thanneermukkom Bund are fully opened only few times in an year. This prevents the migration of fishes and prawns upstream from the Arabian Sea. The weed growth, especially that of the invasive aquatic plant ‘freshwater hyacinth’ restricts the natural flushing of pollutants as well.

The uncontrolled mining of shells from the lake bed is also causing threats to the eco-system. The sewages and the heavy loads of organic materials released to the lake are causing decrease in the content of dissolved oxygen in the water which in-turn affects the fish population. There are currently 20,000 waterfowls inhabiting the area and when the fish availability lessens, it impacts the survival of these waterfowls as well as that of the migratory bird in the Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary.

Vembanad Lake as a transportation medium

Over 1.6 million people live in the banks of Vembanad Lake and are directly or indirectly dependent on it for their livelihoods. Major livelihood activities of people include agriculture, fishing, tourism, inland navigation, coir retting and lime shell collection. People as well as materials are transferred within the region through the intricate network of estuaries, lagoons, and canals formed by the wetland system of the lake which spans over 196 km in the north-south and 29 km in the east-west directions. 

Almost all the villages in the areas near to the lake can be accessed by boats. The six major rivers that drains into the lake are all navigable up to distance of about 30 km upstream during tides. The Kottappuram- Kollam canal system passes through Vembanad Lake and spans a total of 209 km. It is a national waterway. 

Getting to Vembanad Lake and Kumarakom

Major tourist activities of Vembanad Lake are situated in and around Kumarakom town which is located in Kottayam District of Kerala State in Southern India. Nearest city is Kottayam (16 km) from where there are direct buses to Kumarakom. Kottayam houses the nearest major railway station and it connects the city to most other parts of the country. 

Activities Around

Attractions Near Vembanad Lake

Pathiramanal Island

Pathiramanal Island

2.86km from Vembanad Lake

A lush green island in the middle of a lake, home to many species of birds.

Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary

Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary

4.73km from Vembanad Lake

Home for native and migratory birds from the Himalayas and Siberia.

Marari Beach

Marari Beach

10.99km from Vembanad Lake

Rated as one of the worlds top five HAMMOCK BEACH by National Geographic Survey. Peaceful place, good climate, away from the city crowd.

St Andrew's Basilica Church

St Andrew's Basilica Church

12.96km from Vembanad Lake

One of the major pilgrim centers of Christians in Kerala, and an architectural marvel.

Alleppey Lighthouse

Alleppey Lighthouse

14.25km from Vembanad Lake

Built in 1862, Alleppey Lighthouse(Alappuzha Lighthouse) is the first of its kind on the Arabian coast of Kerala. Alappuzha, where the lighthouse stands was one of the busiest ports and centers of Kerala during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Alappuzha Beach

Alappuzha Beach

14.56km from Vembanad Lake

The popular beach of Alapuzha with its old pier, the light house, and an amazing sunset. #beach #sunset

Discover More Attractions in Kottayam, Home of Vembanad Lake



7 attractions

The land of panoramic paddy fields, highlands, hills, hillocks, rubber plantations.

Location of Vembanad Lake

What Visitors Say About Vembanad Lake


1 Reviews











Nithin Mathew

Nithin Mathew


We took a boating tour of the lake and it was amazing. The best leisure boating I ever took in my life.

There are many boat jettys around Vembanad lake from where you can do the tour, we took the tour from "Kavanattinkara" boat jetty. It was a small boat and takes you through the lake and then most importantly through the canals.

The canals offer much better views, they are filled with watermosses and lotuses that were on their blooming period while we were visiting. There were many different species of birds, some with neon colors, there were schools of ducks floating around and then you can also see the locals going on with their daily lives.

Throughout the tour you will be able to see hundreds of hoiseboats, some small and some very very large floating around carrying the visitors. You can also book one of them and stay in them for one or two days while it takes you to many different places around the lake to have great experiences. For us, we were very content with the small boat tour that finished in three and half hours.